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Regress Mongolia


Mongolia in Transition, 1368-1911 REG

 

Return to Nomadic Patterns

The end of the Yuan was the second turning point in Mongol history. The retreat of more than 60,000 Mongols into the Mongolian heartland brought radical changes to the quasifeudalistic system. In the early fifteenth century, the Mongols split into two groups, the Oirad in the Altai region and the eastern group that later came to be known as the Khalkha in the area north of the Gobi.

A lengthy civil war (1400-54) precipitated still more changes in the old social and political institutions. By the middle of the fifteenth century, the Oirad had emerged as the predominant force, and, under the leadership of Esen Khan, they united much of Mongolia and then continued their war against China. Esen was so successful against China that, in 1449, he defeated and captured the Ming emperor. After Esen was killed in battle four years later, however, the brief resurgence of Mongolia came to an abrupt halt, and the tribes returned to their traditional disunity.

After nearly two more decades of Oirad-Khalkha conflict, another Oirad chieftain, Dayan Khan, assumed central leadership in 1466 and reunited most of Mongolia. By the end of the fifteenth century, he had restored peace and had established a new confederation comprising a vast region of North-central Asia, between the Ural Mountains and Lake Baykal. He then extended his control eastward to include the remainder of Khalkha Mongolia. The Oirad were surrounded by the Turkic descendants of the Chagadai Mongols who occupied the lowlands to the east and west, in the three independent khanates of Yarkand (modern Xinjiang south of the Tian Shan Mountains), Ferghana, and Khwarizm. Early in the sixteenth century, these three khanates were overwhelmed, however, by the Uzbeks, who earlier had broken loose from Mongol authority. The Uzbeks consolidated their control over Bukhara (Bokhara), Samarkand, Khwarizm, and Herat. During Dayan Khans rule, quasi-feudalistic administration was reestablished, and tribes became more settled, with more specified grazing areas. What little government existed was exercised by noble descendants of Chinggis (including Dayan), but it met with great resistance.

After the death of Dayan in 1543, the Oirad and the Khalkha disintegrated once more into insignificant and quarrelsome tribal groupings. The Torgut subclan of the Oirad was now perhaps the most vital of the Mongol peoples. The Torgut raided frequently across the Urals into the Volga Valley, which had been conquered by the new Muscovite empire. Farther east the Khalkha roamed the region north and south of the Gobi; the Ordos Mongols and the Chahar Mongols became loosely grouped in a confederation holding most of Southern Mongolia. The boundaries of territories ruled by the Uzbeks remained relatively stable.

Throughout this period of discord among the Mongols, they nonetheless shared a continuing hostility to the Ming. The struggle was maintained principally by the Khalkha. Although the title had become almost meaningless, the line of the khans had continued in the Chahar tribe, the leader of which became the rallying point for the conflict against China.

The war with China was renewed with considerable energy after Altan Khan (1507-83) of the Tumed clan united the Khalkha. Although he was not so prominent in history as his predecessor, Dayan, or his successor, Galdan Khan (1632-97), Altan was probably the greatest of the Mongol princes in the centuries following the collapse of the Yuan. By 1552 he had defeated the Oirad and had reunited most of Mongolia. It soon became obvious to Altan that there was nothing to be gained by continuing the war with the Ming; the empire of Chinggis never could be restored. Accordingly, he concluded a treaty with the Ming emperor in 1571, ending a struggle that had lasted more than three centuries.
In the remaining eleven years of his life, Altan aggressively pushed Mongol power to the south and the southwest, and he raided Tibet extensively. Altan, in turn, was coopted by a Buddhist revival in Tibet, and he became a fervent convert. In 1586 the first lamaist monastery was established in Mongolia, and Buddhism--specifically, Lamaism--became the state religion.

Mongolia was a pay tax to the Manchus Dynasty between 1691 and 1911. Mongolia declared its independence from Manchus Dynesty in 1911, when the Manchus, Qing Dynasty fell.

As the Manchu Qing Dynasty grew weaker in China, Russia began to encourage Mongolian nationalism.
The present-day border between Inner Mongolia and Outer (independent) Mongolia was drawn in 1727, when Russia and China signed the Treaty of Khiakta.
Chinese troops recaptured Outer Mongolia in 1919, while the Russians were distracted by their revolution. However, Moscow occupied Mongolias capital at Urga in 1921, and Outer Mongolia became a Peoples Republic under Russian influence in 1924.
Japan invaded Mongolia in 1939, but was thrown back by Soviet-Mongolian troops.
Mongolia joined the UN in 1961. At that time, relations between the Soviets and Chinese were souring rapidly. Caught in the middle, Mongolia tried to remain neutral.
In 1966, the Soviet Union sent a large number of ground forces into Mongolia to face down the Chinese. Mongolia itself began to expel its ethnic Chinese citizens in 1983.
 

Independent Mongolia:

 In 1987, Mongolia began to pull away from the USSR. It established diplomatic relations with the U.S., and saw large-scale pro-democracy protests in 1989-1990. The first democratic elections for the Great Hural were held in 1990, and the first presidential election in 1993.
In the two decades since Mongolias peaceful transition to democracy began, the country has been developing own way



Tailor made
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  Length of stay in Mongolia :
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  Places of attraction  you want to visit or see:
 
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1. What are the passport and visa requirements for Mongolia?

All travelers require a valid passport in order to visit Mongolia. Your passport must remain valid for at least 6 months after the last day of your visit. Please be sure your passport has been signed and has adequate space remaining for entry and exit stamps.
U.S citizens do not require a visa to enter Mongolia. However if your transit time in China exceeds 24 hours, it is imperative that you obtain a double- entry Chinese visa in advance. For most other nationalities including Canadian and European, DO require a visa to enter Mongolia.
Please contact us for more information or you may also check with U.S Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) or the closest consulate before departure to see if any special requirements apply to your case.

2. Do I require any vaccinations prior to traveling?

Wild Nature Travel is not qualified to provide any medical advice and we highly recommend that you consult your personal physician to determine your particular needs.
According to the Center for Disease Control, no immunizations are required for entry in to Mongolia from the United States or for reentry into United States for Mongolia. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends Tetanus/ Diphtheria and polio inoculations be up to date for all international travel and that you consider an immunization against Hepatitis A and rabies.
If you are arriving in Mongolia via China, please note that China requires that you have a yellow fever vaccination if you are entering the country from, or have recently been in certain countries in Africa and South America. An International Certificate of Vaccination must be validated b the center that administers the vaccine and carried with you on your trip.
Please plan ahead as some inoculations must be given in sequence and the entire immunization process could take as long as eight weeks.

3. What is the best time to visit Mongolia?

Mongolia has a relatively cool climate with short, mild summers and long severe winters lasting from November through April. Average temperatures are as follows:
Early May to Mid May: 35-65 degrees Fahrenheit
Late May to Early August: 50-90 degrees Fahrenheit
Mid August to Early September: 45-75 degrees Fahrenheit
Mid-September to Early October: 30-70 degrees Fahrenheit

4. What kind of clothing and shoes do you recommend for packing?

Since temperatures in Mongolia can vary widely during the day, it is best to carry casual clothing that can be layered. Dress is informal and jeans or similar attire is appropriate. For those traveling to the mountain regions, particularly in spring and autumn, warm hats and gloves are recommended as well as a jacket appropriate for cold and windy conditions. You should bring a waterproof jacket or other rain gear such as a poncho or an umbrella. A broad brimmed hat is useful for sun protection.
Proper footwear is essential; be sure to bring comfortable walking shoes or hiking boots. Rubber Beach sandals will prove useful when using the bath and toilets at the ger camps. You may also wish to bring something that can be used as a cover-up while using centralized facilities.
Due to International airlines imposing baggage weight restrictions, we suggest you plan your wardrobe around items that can serve several purposes.

5. Can you accommodate my dietary restrictions?

We can accommodate those with special dietary needs, such as vegetarian or low-fat diets. However food choices may not be as plentiful or flavorful as you are used to. Please let us know in advance if you have any special dietary needs.

6. What kind of food is served during the tours?

Staying true to Mongolian traditional cuisine – meals are typically meat based and include noodles, rice and/or breads. Most meals are likely to include potatoes, carrots, cabbage, cucumbers or tomatoes. Fruit may be available but is typically canned. Breakfast usually includes eggs, sausages, toast, tea and instant tea/coffee. Lunch is the main meal of the day and includes salad, a bowl of soup and meat with rice and potatoes. Dinner usually consists of a salad and meat with rice or noodles and vegetables.

7. Is bottled water available during the tour?

Yes, bottled and boiled water is available in all places you will visit as part of our tour.

8. I suffer from motion sickness. Are these tours suitable for me?

Mongolia being a vast country, certain itineraries might necessitate drives on unpaved and bumpy roads. The roads can also be dusty and you may find a scarf or handkerchief helpful. If you think you may be prone to motion sickness, please bring your own medication to alleviate possible discomfort.

9. What should I do in case of a medical emergency?

Pack ample supply of basic health and first-aid needs, including any prescription drugs and vitamins. Medical facilities are available in Mongolia, however since standards and methods of treatments are not the same as ours, the prospect of illness or hospitalization should not be taken lightly. If you have a serious medical problem or a medical condition that might be adversely affected by strenuous travel, please contact us so we may provide more precise information. The Wild Nature Travel strongly recommends the purchase of a comprehensive travel and medical insurance including medical evacuation coverage.

10.  Are your tours suitable for all age groups?

Mongolia has something to offer to everyone. We have trips that cater to families with kids as young as 3 years old and there is no upper age limit for most of our tours. More important than age, our tours are designed for those who share our enthusiasm for discovering out-of –the-ordinary destinations.

11. I cannot ride a horse? Can I still join your tours?

For most of our tours, the horse riding adventure is completely optional and if you choose to ride it is suitable for beginners. The treks normally last for an average of about 1-3 hours. However, certain tours such as the Steppe Ride????? on Horseback and Horse trek to Hagiin Har Lake require some prior experience in horse riding.

12. What are Gers?

Gers are traditional dome-like felt tents made by latticed wood walls covered by felt and canvas and supported by poles. This is the traditional home of the herdsmen who must move with their animals and therefore need an easily transportable dwelling that will withstand harsh winters. Ger camps offer an authentic experience of Mongolian culture and provide the unique opportunity to visit areas which otherwise lack visitor accommodations.

13. How is the accommodation in a traditional Ger camp?

Cozy, quaint and homelike, the gers consist of single/ twin comfortable mattresses on elevated wooden frames. Clean sheets, pillows and blankets are provided. The gers are heated by wood stoves with a chimney through a hole in the center of the roof.

14.  Are there attached bathrooms?

Normally not- the most Ger camps offer western style shower and toilet facilities in their central building.

15. Is hot water available throughout the day?

Hot water is available only at certain times during the day; your Mongolian guide will let you know when to expect hot water so you can plan when to shower.

16. Are toiletries provided?

No, toiletries are not provided at traditional Ger camps. You will need to bring your own soap and washcloth for your stay. Towels provided in each ger are small; you may therefore prefer to bring a larger towel of your own.

17. Are there electrical outlets in Gers? Is electricity available throughout the day?

Although there is electricity available at ger camps, it is often turned off during the daylight hours and during the middle of the night in order to conserve energy. Please be sure to bring a flashlight for those occasions when electricity is turned off and you need a light source.

18. Are there ATM’s available throughout the country?

ATM machines are not widely available in remote areas. Your best option would be to withdraw cash in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar prior to commencement of your tour. There are ATM machines available at the main branch of the Trade & Developmen Bank and State Department Store.  If you plan on using an ATM facility, please contact your bank prior to arrival to ensure there are no international restrictions.

19. How can I exchange currency?

US Dollars are accepted in most places along with Mongolian currency, the togrog. Mongolian currency can be readily obtained from hotels as well as major banks. It is advisable to carry the majority of your money in cash, preferably large and smaller denominations (tens, twenties and fifties). You should also bring a selection of ones and fives ($20 in ones and $50 in fives) for purchasing small souvenirs. Please ensure that all bills are relatively new and in good condition. Old, faded or ripped bills will not be accepted, nor will fifties and hundreds that are not the new issue.

20.  Are there restrooms/ bathroom facilities available during our daily excursions?

During many of your daily excursions in the countryside there will not be any bathroom facilities available. Bring small packs of tissue or towelettes for any “wilderness rest stops”. We ask that you carry your used tissues in a personal ziplock bag that can be disposed of at the ger camp or the capital city.

21.  Is there a luggage limit?

Domestic airlines in Mongolia have strict luggage limitations of 33-44 lb check in bags and 11 lb for carry on. So, plan to carry on small duffel bag for the excursions in the countryside and a backpack. You can leave your luggage at the hotel.





Trip Payment Schedule
At time of reservation: 30% of payment 
60 days prior to departure: Balance

Trip Cancellation Schedule
More than 8 weeks – 15% of the tour fare
Less than 8 weeks – 30% of the tour fare
Less than 6 days – 100% of the tour fare

Children Discount
For children of a family (0 – 3 years old) is 75% free of charge
For children of a family (4 – 12 years old) is 50% free of charge 

Discount Condition
More attractive prices for groups of 12 and more people!
1 free space for every 16 PAX
If you travel with us 2+ times you can get 10% off.